Introduction ::BulgariaBackground:The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in the late 7th century to form the first Bulgarian state. In succeeding centuries, Bulgaria struggled with the Byzantine Empire to assert its place in the Balkans, but by the end of the 14th century the country was overrun by the Ottoman Turks. Northern Bulgaria attained autonomy in 1878 and all of Bulgaria became independent from the Ottoman Empire in 1908. Having fought on the losing side in both World Wars, Bulgaria fell within the Soviet sphere of influence and became a People's Republic in 1946. Communist domination ended in 1990, when Bulgaria held its first multiparty election since World War II and began the contentious process of moving toward political democracy and a market economy while combating inflation, unemployment, corruption, and crime. The country joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007.Geography ::BulgariaLocation:Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and TurkeyGeographic coordinates:43 00 N, 25 00 EArea:total: 110,879 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 105land: 108,489 sq kmwater: 2,390 sq kmArea - comparative:slightly larger than TennesseeLand boundaries:total: 1,808 kmborder countries: Greece 494 km, Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia 318 km, Turkey 240 kmCoastline:354 kmMaritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nmcontiguous zone: 24 nmexclusive economic zone: 200 nmClimate:temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summersTerrain:mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeastElevation extremes:lowest point: Black Sea 0 mhighest point: Musala 2,925 mNatural resources:bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable landLand use:arable land: 29.28%permanent crops: 1.44%other: 69.28% (2011)Irrigated land:1,046 sq km (2007)Total renewable water resources:21.3 cu km (2011)Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 6.12 cu km/yr (16%/68%/16%)per capita: 821.8 cu m/yr (2009)Natural hazards:earthquakes; landslidesEnvironment - current issues:air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastesEnvironment - international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlandssigned, but not ratified: none of the selected agreementsGeography - note:strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and AsiaPeople and Society ::BulgariaNationality:noun: Bulgarian(s)adjective: BulgarianEthnic groups:Bulgarian 76.9%, Turk 8%, Roma 4.4%, other 0.7% (including Macedonian, Armenian, Tatar, Circassian), other (unknown) 10% (2011 census)Languages:Bulgarian (official) 76.8%, Turkish 8.2%, Roma 3.8%, other 0.7%, other (unknown) 10.5% (2011 census)Religions:Eastern Orthodox 59.4%, Muslim (Sunni) 7.4%, Muslim (Shia) 0.4%, other (including Catholic, Protestant, Armenian Apostolic Orthodox, and Judaism) 1.7%, other (unknown) 27.4%, none 3.7% (2011 census)Population:6,981,642 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 101Age structure:0-14 years: 14.2% (male 506,968/female 481,962)15-24 years: 10.5% (male 377,834/female 357,546)25-54 years: 42.3% (male 1,467,339/female 1,486,062)55-64 years: 14.1% (male 454,728/female 528,650)65 years and over: 18.9% (male 532,084/female 788,469) (2013 est.)Dependency ratios:total dependency ratio: 49.2 %youth dependency ratio: 20.4 %elderly dependency ratio: 28.8 %potential support ratio: 3.5 (2013)Median age:total: 42.3 yearsmale: 40 yearsfemale: 44.4 years (2013 est.)Population growth rate:-0.81% (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 230Birth rate:9.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 207Death rate:14.31 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 8Net migration rate:-2.86 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 173Urbanization:urban population: 73.1% of total population (2011)rate of urbanization: 0.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)Major urban areas - population:SOFIA (capital) 1.174 million (2011)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.92 male(s)/female (2013 est.)Mother's mean age at first birth:26.2 (2010 est.)Maternal mortality rate:11 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)country comparison to the world: 153Infant mortality rate:total: 15.6 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 105male: 18.67 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 12.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 74.08 yearscountry comparison to the world: 114male: 70.49 yearsfemale: 77.89 years (2013 est.)Total fertility rate:1.43 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 199Contraceptive prevalence rate:69.2%note: percent of women age 20-49 (2007)Health expenditures:6.9% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 84Physicians density:3.64 physicians/1,000 population (2008)Hospital bed density:6.6 beds/1,000 population (2009)Drinking water source:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)Sanitation facility access:improved:urban: 100% of populationrural: 100% of populationtotal: 100% of population (2010 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 115HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:3,800 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 122HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 200 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Obesity - adult prevalence rate:23.7% (2008)country comparison to the world: 72Children under the age of 5 years underweight:1.6% (2004)country comparison to the world: 125Education expenditures:4.6% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 92Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 98.4%male: 98.7%female: 98% (2011 est.)School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):total: 14 yearsmale: 14 yearsfemale: 14 years (2010)Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:total: 26.6%country comparison to the world: 34male: 27.6%female: 25.2% (2011)Government ::BulgariaCountry name:conventional long form: Republic of Bulgariaconventional short form: Bulgarialocal long form: Republika Balgariyalocal short form: BalgariyaGovernment type:parliamentary democracyCapital:name: Sofiageographic coordinates: 42 41 N, 23 19 Etime difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in OctoberAdministrative divisions:28 provinces (oblasti, singular - oblast); Blagoevgrad, Burgas, Dobrich, Gabrovo, Khaskovo, Kurdzhali, Kyustendil, Lovech, Montana, Pazardzhik, Pernik, Pleven, Plovdiv, Razgrad, Ruse, Shumen, Silistra, Sliven, Smolyan, Sofiya (Sofia), Sofiya-Grad (Sofia City), Stara Zagora, Turgovishte, Varna, Veliko Turnovo, Vidin, Vratsa, YambolIndependence:3 March 1878 (as an autonomous principality within the Ottoman Empire); 22 September 1908 (complete independence from the Ottoman Empire)National holiday:Liberation Day, 3 March (1878)Constitution:adopted 12 July 1991Legal system:civil lawInternational law organization participation:accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdictionSuffrage:18 years of age; universalExecutive branch:chief of state: President Rosen PLEVNELIEV (since 22 January 2012); Vice President Margarita POPOVA (since 22 January 2012)head of government: Prime Minister Plamen ORESHARSKI (since 29 May 2013) Deputy Prime Minister Zinaida ZLATANOVA (since 29 May 2013)cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly(For more information visit the World Leaders website )elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 23 and 30 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister) elected by the National Assembly; deputy prime ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assemblyelection results: Rosen PLEVNELIEV elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - Rosen PLEVNELIEV 52.6%, Ivailo KALFIN 47.4%; Plamen ORESHARSKI elected prime minister; result of legislative vote - 120 to 97Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Narodno Sabranie (240 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)elections: last held on 12 May 2013 (next to be held spring 2017)election results: percent of vote by party - GERB 30.5%, BSP 26.6%, MRF 11.3%, Ataka 7.3%; seats by party - GERB 98, BSP 86, MRF 33, Ataka 23Judicial branch:highest court(s): Supreme Court of Cassation (consists of a chairman and approximately 72 judges organized in criminal, civil, and commercial colleges); Supreme Administrative Court (organized in 2 colleges with various panels of 5 judges each); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 members); note - Constitutional Court resides outside the Judiciaryjudge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Cassation and Supreme Administrative judges elected by the Supreme Judicial Council (consists of 12 members elected by the National Assembly) and appointed by the president; member tenure NA; Constitutional Court members selected by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Courts; judges appointed for 9-year termssubordinate courts: appeals courts; regional and district courts; administrative courts; courts martialPolitical parties and leaders:Attack (Ataka) [Volen Nikolov SIDEROV]Blue Coalition [Ivan KOSTOV and Martin DIMITROV] (a parliamentary coalition of center-right parties dominated by UDF and DSB)Bulgarian Socialist Party or BSP [Sergei STANISHEV]Bulgaria of the Citizens [Meglena KUNEVA]Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria or GERB [Boyko BORISOV]Coalition for Bulgaria or CfB [Sergei STANISHEV] (coalition of parties dominated by BSP)Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria or DSB [Ivan KOSTOV]Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization or IMRO [Krasimir KARAKACHANOV]Movement for Rights and Freedoms or MRF [Lyutvi MESTAN]National Movement for Stability and Progress or NDSV [Hristina HRISTOVA] (formerly National Movement Simeon II or NMS2)Order, Law, and Justice or RZS [Yane YANEV]Union of Democratic Forces or UDF [Emil KABAIVANOV]United People's Party or ENP [Maria CAPONE]Political pressure groups and leaders:Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUBPodkrepa Labor Confederationother: numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various agendasInternational organization participation:Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EU, FAO, G- 9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO (pending member), ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZCDiplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Elena POPTODOROVAchancery: 1621 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008telephone:  (202) 387-0174FAX:  (202) 234-7973consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New YorkDiplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Marcie B. RIESembassy: 16 Kozyak Street, Sofia 1408mailing address: American Embassy Sofia, US Department of State, 5740 Sofia Place, Washington, DC 20521-5740telephone:  (2) 937-5100FAX:  (2) 937-5320Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of white (top), green, and red; the pan-Slavic white-blue-red colors were modified by substituting a green band (representing freedom) for the bluenote: the national emblem, formerly on the hoist side of the white stripe, has been removedNational symbol(s):lionNational anthem:name: ""Mila Rodino"" (Dear Homeland)lyrics/music: Tsvetan Tsvetkov RADOSLAVOVnote: adopted 1964; the anthem was composed in 1885 by a student en route to fight in the Serbo-Bulgarian WarEconomy ::BulgariaEconomy - overview:Bulgaria, a former Communist country that entered the EU on 1 January 2007, averaged more than 6% annual growth from 2004 to 2008, driven by significant amounts of bank lending, consumption, and foreign direct investment. Successive governments have demonstrated a commitment to economic reforms and responsible fiscal planning, but the global downturn sharply reduced domestic demand, exports, capital inflows, and industrial production. GDP contracted by 5.5% in 2009, stagnated in 2010, despite a significant recovery in exports, grew 1.7% in 2011, and 1% in 2012. Despite having a favorable investment regime, including low, flat corporate income taxes, significant challenges remain. Corruption in public administration, a weak judiciary, and the presence of organized crime continue to hamper the country's investment climate and economic prospects.GDP (purchasing power parity):$105.5 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72$104.7 billion (2011 est.)$102.8 billion (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGDP (official exchange rate):$51.02 billion (2012 est.)GDP - real growth rate:0.8% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1651.8% (2011 est.)0.4% (2010 est.)GDP - per capita (PPP):$14,500 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 93$14,300 (2011 est.)$13,700 (2010 est.)note: data are in 2012 US dollarsGross national saving:22.6% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 6022.9% of GDP (2011 est.)21.2% of GDP (2010 est.)GDP - composition, by end use:household consumption: 72.1%government consumption: 7.8%investment in fixed capital: 21.4%investment in inventories: 2.4%exports of goods and services: 66.6%imports of goods and services: -70.3%(2012 est.)GDP - composition, by sector of origin:agriculture: 6.4%industry: 30.4%services: 63.2% (2012 est.)Agriculture - products:vegetables, fruits, tobacco, wine, wheat, barley, sunflowers, sugar beets; livestockIndustries:electricity, gas, water; food, beverages, tobacco; machinery and equipment, base metals, chemical products, coke, refined petroleum, nuclear fuelIndustrial production growth rate:1.2% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 116Labor force:2.585 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 113Labor force - by occupation:agriculture: 7.1%industry: 35.2%services: 57.7% (2009)Unemployment rate:11.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1199.6% (2011 est.)Population below poverty line:21.8% (2008)Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2%highest 10%: 35.2% (2007)Distribution of family income - Gini index:45.3 (2007)country comparison to the world: 3926 (2001)Budget:revenues: $17.71 billionexpenditures: $17.97 billion (2012 est.)Taxes and other revenues:34.7% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 66Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):-0.5% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 56Public debt:16.2% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 13516.3% of GDP (2011 est.)defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security fundsFiscal year:calendar yearInflation rate (consumer prices):3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 934.2% (2011 est.)Central bank discount rate:0.03% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 1420.22% (31 December 2011 est.)note: Bulgarian National Bank (BNB) has had no independent monetary policy since the introduction of the Currency Board regime in 1997; this is BNB's base interest rateCommercial bank prime lending rate:9.72% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 8110.63% (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of narrow money:$15.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 67$13.91 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of broad money:$37.68 billion (31 December 2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 73$34.46 billion (31 December 2010 est.)Stock of domestic credit:$37.14 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 68$35.54 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Market value of publicly traded shares:$8.253 billion (31 December 2011)country comparison to the world: 76$7.276 billion (31 December 2010)$7.103 billion (31 December 2009)Current account balance:$542.8 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 44$502.2 million (2011 est.)Exports:$26.82 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 69$28.12 billion (2011 est.)Exports - commodities:clothing, footwear, iron and steel, machinery and equipment, fuelsExports - partners:Germany 10.4%, Turkey 9.1%, Italy 8.7%, Romania 8.2%, Greece 7.3%, France 4% (2012)Imports:$31.5 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 65$30.86 billion (2011 est.)Imports - commodities:machinery and equipment; metals and ores; chemicals and plastics; fuels, minerals, and raw materialsImports - partners:Russia 20.9%, Germany 11.3%, Italy 6.7%, Romania 6.6%, Greece 6.1%, Turkey 4.6%, Spain 4.5% (2012)Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$20.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 58$17.27 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Debt - external:$50.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 62$47.32 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:$52.99 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 53$51.19 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:$1.923 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 72$1.823 billion (31 December 2011 est.)Exchange rates:leva (BGN) per US dollar -1.5221 (2012 est.)1.4065 (2011 est.)1.4774 (2010 est.)1.404 (2009)1.3171 (2008)Energy ::BulgariaElectricity - production:41.9 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 55Electricity - consumption:28.1 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 64Electricity - exports:12 billion kWh (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 15Electricity - imports:1.166 billion kWh (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 59Electricity - installed generating capacity:12 million kW (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 50Electricity - from fossil fuels:46.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 163Electricity - from nuclear fuels:20.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 11Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:22.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 85Electricity - from other renewable sources:1.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 58Crude oil - production:1,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 95Crude oil - exports:0 bbl/day (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 89Crude oil - imports:123,400 bbl/day (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 44Crude oil - proved reserves:15 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 86Refined petroleum products - production:120,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 68Refined petroleum products - consumption:112,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)country comparison to the world: 73Refined petroleum products - exports:78,180 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 46Refined petroleum products - imports:29,940 bbl/day (2008 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Natural gas - production:68,000 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 93Natural gas - consumption:2.17 billion cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 77Natural gas - exports:0 cu m (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 70Natural gas - imports:2.48 billion cu m (2010)country comparison to the world: 46Natural gas - proved reserves:5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 87Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:42.17 million Mt (2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 65Communications ::BulgariaTelephones - main lines in use:2.356 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 54Telephones - mobile cellular:10.475 million (2011)country comparison to the world: 73Telephone system:general assessment: inherited an extensive but antiquated telecommunications network from the Soviet era; quality has improved with a modern digital trunk line now connecting switching centers in most of the regions; remaining areas are connected by digital microwave radio relaydomestic: the Bulgaria Telecommunications Company's fixed-line monopoly terminated in 2005 in an effort to upgrade fixed-line services; mobile-cellular teledensity, fostered by multiple service providers, has reached 150 telephones per 100 personsinternational: country code - 359; submarine cable provides connectivity to Ukraine and Russia; a combination submarine cable and land fiber-optic system provides connectivity to Italy, Albania, and Macedonia; satellite earth stations - 3 (1 Intersputnik in the Atlantic Ocean region, 2 Intelsat in the Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions) (2011)Broadcast media:4 national terrestrial TV stations with 1 state-owned and 3 privately owned; a vast array of TV stations are available from cable and satellite TV providers; state-owned national radio broadcasts over 3 networks; large number of private radio stations broadcasting, especially in urban areas (2010)Internet country code:.bgInternet hosts:976,277 (2012)country comparison to the world: 47Internet users:3.395 million (2009)country comparison to the world: 63Transportation ::BulgariaAirports:68 (2013)country comparison to the world: 74Airports - with paved runways:total: 57over 3,047 m: 22,438 to 3,047 m: 171,524 to 2,437 m: 12under 914 m: 26 (2013)Airports - with unpaved runways:total: 11914 to 1,523 m: 2under 914 m:9 (2013)Heliports:1 (2013)Pipelines:gas 2,887 km; oil 346 km; refined products 378 km (2013)Railways:total: 4,152 kmcountry comparison to the world: 40standard gauge: 4,072 km 1.435-m gauge (2,863 km electrified)narrow gauge: 80 km 0.760-m gauge (2011)Roadways:total: 19,512 kmcountry comparison to the world: 109paved: 19,235 km (includes 458 km of expressways)unpaved: 277 kmnote: does not include Category IV local roads (2011)Waterways:470 km (2009)country comparison to the world: 84Merchant marine:total: 22country comparison to the world: 93by type: bulk carrier 9, cargo 8, liquefied gas 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 2foreign-owned: 14 (Germany 12, Russia 2)registered in other countries: 30 (Belize 1, Comoros 4, Georgia 1, Malta 8, Moldova 1, Panama 6, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 9) (2010)Ports and terminals:major seaport(s): Burgas, Varna (Black Sea)Military ::BulgariaMilitary branches:Bulgarian Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Bulgarian Air Forces (Bulgarski Voennovazdyshni Sily, BVVS) (2011)Military service age and obligation:18-27 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription ended in January 2008; service obligation 6-9 months (2012)Manpower available for military service:males age 16-49: 1,637,470females age 16-49: 1,621,352 (2010 est.)Manpower fit for military service:males age 16-49: 1,320,955females age 16-49: 1,337,616 (2010 est.)Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:male: 33,444female: 32,075 (2010 est.)Military expenditures:2.6% of GDP (2005 est.)country comparison to the world: 52Transnational Issues ::BulgariaDisputes - international:noneIllicit drugs:major European transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and, to a lesser degree, South American cocaine for the European market; limited producer of precursor chemicals; vulnerable to money laundering because of corruption, organized crime; some money laundering of drug-related proceeds through financial institutions (2008)"
The World Factbook. 2014.
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BULGARIA — BULGARIA, East Balkan republic located along the Black Sea. Ancient Period A Jewish settlement is known to have existed in Macedonia in the time of Caligula (37–41 C.E.; Philo, Embassy to Gaius, par. 281). A late second century Latin inscription… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
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Bulgaria — M.L., from Bulgari Bulgarians, perhaps lit. the men from the Bolg, the River Volga, upon whose banks they lived until 6c. But the people s name for themselves in O.Bulg. was Blugarinu, according to OED, which suggests a different origin. In other … Etymology dictionary
Bulgaria — [bəl ger′ē ə, boolger′ē ə] country in SE Europe, on the Black Sea: founded in the 7th cent. & under Turkish rule from the late 14th cent. until 1878; gained full independence in 1908: 42,855 sq mi (110,994 sq km); pop. 8,473,000; cap. Sofia … English World dictionary
Bulgaria — Infobox Country native name = bg. Република България bg. Republika Balgaria This article uses the official Bulgarian transliteration system when romanizing Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.] local name = bg. Balgaria … Wikipedia
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Bulgaria — /bul gair ee euh, bool /, n. a republic in SE Europe. 8,652,745; 42,800 sq. mi. (110,850 sq. km). Cap.: Sofia. * * * Bulgaria Introduction Bulgaria Background: The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in … Universalium
Bulgaria — La República de Bulgaria es un país europeo ubicado en el sudeste del continente. Colinda al norte con Rumania, al sur con Grecia y Turquía y al oeste con Serbia y Montenegro y con la A.R.Y. de Macedonia. Su capital es Sofía. * * * (República… … Enciclopedia Universal